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Reading and Writing to Global State using Rust

The following examples outline methods to read and write data to global state on a Casper network using the Rust programming language.

Essentially, there are three means of storage within the Casper ecosystem. These consist of runtime::put_key, storage::write(alongside storage::new_uref as explained below) and storage::dictionary_put. These stored values can be read using runtime::get_key, storage::read and storage::dictionary_get, respectively. Each method stores data in a specific way, and it's important to understand the differences.

Description of Functions

runtime::put_key / runtime::get_key

Both the put_key and get_key functions refer to Casper Key types as outlined in both the Understanding Hash Types and Serialization Standard. These keys are stored within a URef as a Key type.

storage::write / storage::read

storage::write writes a given value to a previously established URef (created using storage::new_uref). Unlike put_key, this value is not one of the Key types listed above, but rather any of the potential CLTypes as outlined. storage::read provides a method to retrieve these values from the associated URef.

storage:dictionary_put / storage::dictionary_get

For most data storage needs on a Casper network, dictionaries are more efficient and provide lower gas costs than NamedKeys. Each dictionary item exists independently, sharing a single dictionary seed URef for reference purposes.

More information on dictionaries can be found on the Reading and Writing to Dictionaries page.

Example Code

Example of put_key and storage::write

This sample code creates a new contract and stores the contract hash in global state using the runtime::put_key function.

Once the stored value has been initialized, the storage::write function overwrites the existing value with true. The URef is then stored in the current context as a NamedKey titled MY_STORED_VALUE_UREF.

// Store contract hash under a Named key CONTRACT_HASH
runtime::put_key(CONTRACT_HASH, contract_hash.into());

// Store !MY_STORED_VALUE (false) as init value/type into a new URef
let my_value_uref = storage::new_uref(!MY_STORED_VALUE);

// Store MY_STORED_VALUE (true) under the URef value
storage::write(my_value_uref, MY_STORED_VALUE);

// Store the Uref under a Named key MY_STORED_VALUE_UREF
let my_value_key: Key = my_value_uref.into();
runtime::put_key(MY_STORED_VALUE_UREF, my_value_key);

Example of get_key and storage::read

This example compliments the code sample above by retrieving the CONTRACT_HASH using the get_key function, before comparing a provided runtime argument ARG_MY_STORED_VALUE against the previously stored MY_STORED_VALUE_UREF using storage::read.

let my_stored_value_uref: URef = runtime::get_key(MY_STORED_VALUE_UREF)
.map(|uref| URef::new(uref.addr(), AccessRights::default()))

let my_actual_stored_value: bool = storage::read(my_stored_value_uref).unwrap().unwrap();

// Compare my stored value with runtime arg
let my_expected_stored_value: bool = runtime::get_named_arg(ARG_MY_STORED_VALUE);
if my_actual_stored_value != my_expected_stored_value {
// We revert if my stored value is not what is expected from caller argument


Example of dictionary_put and dictionary_get

Examples of dictionary usage for storage can be found in the Writing Entries into a Dictionary section of Reading and Writing to Dictionaries.

Additional Functions for Named Keys

The following functions might also be of interest for working with named keys:

  • list_named_keys - Returns the named keys of the current context
  • has_key - Returns true if the key exists in the current context’s named keys
  • remove_key - Removes the requested NamedKey from the current context